Symptoms of helminths in humans

Treatment of helminthic infestations is carried out with medication

Worm eggs are microscopic in size. Invisible to the eye, they can be anywhere - on the ground, on transport handrails, door handles, in a children's sandbox, in our pet's fur.

How to prevent worm infection or, if it has occurred, how to avoid dangerous complications?

Symptoms of helminths in humans

No one can consider themselves immune to worm infection. Even with the strictest observance of hygiene rules. To minimize the risk of infection, you should be as informed as possible about the symptoms of helminths in humans, the prevention and treatment of helminth infections.

The most common helminths:

  • Round worm.The parasites belong to the class of nematodes, roundworms in cross section. The length of the female reaches 350 mm, the males are much smaller. Roundworms are dangerous in both the intestinal and migratory stages.

    Intestinal localization of parasites in complicated forms can lead to intestinal obstruction, emergence of adult worms in the respiratory tract with risk of asphyxia, bile duct obstruction and other complications. The migratory phase threatens the penetration of larvae into the lungs and other organs with the appearance of severe pathologies.

    Ascariasis infection occurs from parasitic eggs that leave the intestines of the fecal patient and mature in the ground up to the invasive stage.

  • Diphyllobotrium latum.This is a class of cestodes, one of the representatives of which is a wide tapeworm. Their characteristic is that they have 3 owners. The main organism in which worms develop in a sexually mature individual is a person and several animals (cats, dogs, pigs, etc. ). Intermediate hosts for diphyllobotrium latum are freshwater crustaceans. Intermediate additive - fish (perch, pike, burbot). The broadband is infected by eating immature fish infected with parasitic larvae - plerocerkoids.
  • Red worms.These are nematodes, like roundworms, but in much smaller sizes. The female has a length of up to 10 mm, the male - up to 5 mm. Enterobiasis is one of the most common helminthiasis. Children are especially sensitive to them.

    The most characteristic manifestation of enterobiasis is itching in the anus. Explained by the emergence of females in the perianal area for egg laying. In skin folds, embryos mature in the invasive stage in 5-6 hours. Placing them on the hands during itching and then swallowing leads to re-infection.

Dizziness can be a sign of parasites having entered the human body

Ways of infection

Methods of worm infection are determined by the invasive form of the parasite and the ways in which they penetrate the host organism.

Most parasitic worms have two infectious forms - eggs (in some cestodes they are called oncospheres) and larvae. The latter are sometimes called Finnish or cisticerci. The eggs are microscopic in size, usually several tens of micrometers. The larvae can reach a size of several to tens of millimeters.

Most often, worms are infected orally - through the mouth.But some types of parasites can be transmitted through the skin or by insect bites. When eggs are swallowed, the embryos contained in them remove their shells, penetrate the intestinal wall into the bloodstream, and are carried by the blood throughout the body. Depending on the type of parasite, they can be located in the liver, lungs, heart, pancreas, kidneys, brain, eyes.

When infected with larvae, intestinal localization of the parasite most often occurs. Due to their considerable size, the larvae can not penetrate the vessels and migrate along with the blood. They remain in the gut, cling to its wall and grow into a sexually mature state, after which they begin to multiply.

Worm eggs usually leave the gastrointestinal tract with feces. In some cases, for example, with cestodosis, the evacuation of eggs from the intestinal tract can be carried out by fragments of worms - proglottids. They come out of the intestines themselves through the anus.

Allergic skin rashes - a symptom of the presence of parasitic worms in the body

The main types of helminthic lesions

The effectiveness of treating helminths in humans depends on how accurately the clinical picture is defined and the nature of the lesion caused by the parasite on the body. And they, in turn, depend on the stage of invasion - intestinal or migratory.

Intestinal phase of invasion.During the intestinal phase, the main damage is done to the patient's digestive system, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. Worms damage the intestinal mucosa with their suckers. This leads to inflammatory processes and dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract.

In addition to the fact that some of the nutrients are absorbed by worms, the absorption function of the intestines is also impaired.Due to the release of anti-enzymes by parasites, the digestive capacity of the gastrointestinal tract is reduced.. All this leads to a lack in the patient's body of nutrients, vitamins and trace elements.

In addition to anti-enzymes, worms secrete other metabolites that act as toxins in the host organism. Added to this is the decay of the bodies of dead worms. As a result, the patient's body is subjected to severe intoxication.

Some types of parasitic worms are able to penetrate from the gastrointestinal tract to adjacent organs and tissues - the biliary tract, gallbladder, liver parenchyma and other systems. Adult roundworms, for example, with high infection intensity are able to penetrate the host's respiratory tract. With a large number of parasites, mechanical bowel obstruction is possible. This can be seen with both roundworms and tapeworms.

When parasitic worms enter the liver parenchyma, abscesses may develop that require surgical intervention.Intestinal perforation with penetration of the contents of the gastrointestinal tract into the abdominal cavity and the development of peritonitis is not excluded. Due to the damaging effect of adult worms, pancreatitis, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis can develop.

Parasites that live in the intestines cause pain and aggravation in the abdomen

migratory phase.Due to the possibility of penetration of larval embryos in almost any organ, the migratory phase of invasion can pass the intestinal phase in terms of severity of consequences.

Larvae that develop from eggs into organs and tissues form inflammations and infiltrates. If this occurs in the lungs, the invasion manifests itself as bronchitis, pneumonia, asthmatic syndrome.

If the parasite's eggs penetrate the brain (as do, for example, cestode oncospheres), single or multiple bubble finches form in its tissues. Their size can reach the size of a tennis ball. Due to the proximity of cysts to brain tissue, their surgical removal is associated with a high risk of purulent bladder rupture and the development of a secondary infection.

Intoxication of the patient's body with metabolites of live worms and toxins from the decay of their dead bodies leads to allergic reactions. Their result is fever, skin manifestations, headaches and dizziness.

Infection with helminths can provoke the onset of headaches


The symptoms of helminth infection depend on many factors. There are characteristic manifestations for a certain type of invasion, but there are few of them.Most parasitic worms show symptoms similar to other diseases.This makes it difficult to make a diagnosis. These common symptoms include the following:

  • Total deterioration of condition, physical and mental weakness.
  • Nausea, vomiting.
  • Stool disorders, constipation and diarrhea.
  • Discomfort, aggravation, abdominal pain of different localization.
  • Change in appetite up or down.
  • Weight loss without explanation. Included against the background of an increase in the amount of food consumed.
  • Itching in the perianal region, feeling as if something is moving there.
  • Allergic manifestations in the form of skin rashes.
  • Cough.
  • Difficulty breathing, asthmatic syndrome.
  • Bruxism. Cracking of teeth in sleep is typical for children with itching in the anus.
  • Increased irritability, irritability, insomnia, chronic fatigue, depression.
  • Headache.
  • Elevated temperature, most often subfebrile. But sometimes it rises to high values.
  • Dizziness.

In the initial stage of the invasion, the symptoms may be absent altogether or so insignificant that little attention is paid to them. In the future, with an increase in the intensity of the disease, the symptoms become more pronounced.

The symptoms of helminths in human blood can vary depending on the organ that the migrating embryos are located in.If the site of their localization turns out to be the lungs, the patient may have a fever, breathing problems may occur.Usually in these cases, the infection is accompanied by cough - unproductive or saliva, which may be orange in color. The latter suggests that the larvae have damaged small blood vessels in the lungs.

Symptoms of helminths are accompanied by nausea, vomiting, aggravation and abdominal pain, profuse saliva, impaired stools and weight loss.

Careful.In severe hepatic invasion, abscesses may develop with a penetration of purulent contents into the abdominal cavity. This development of the disease threatens the life of the patient.

A sign of parasites in the body is a total deterioration of physical and mental condition

Drug treatment

The treatment of invasions depends on many factors. The main ones are the type of parasitic worms, the place of their localization, the stage of the disease (migratory or intestinal), the intensity of the infection, the condition of the patient. But in any case, treatment must be preceded by diagnosis of the disease.

The most common diagnostic test for infections caused by parasitic worms is the stool test. If it is not enough to make a diagnosis, a general immunological, biochemical and / or enzyme immunoassay is performed.Hardware diagnostics can also be used - ultrasound, radiography, MRI, etc.Having a complete picture of the disease, the doctor prescribes anthelmintic drugs.

Important.Treatment with drugs with a strong active substance can cause side effects. This limits the use of drugs for certain categories of patients. In particular, for pregnant and lactating women, children under a certain age, patients with certain viral and infectious diseases.

Various medicines are prescribed to fight localized nematodes in the gut and to destroy extra-intestinal nematodes.

Important.Often two courses of treatment are performed with a break of 2-3 weeks. This is because most antiviral drugs kill only adults. Their larvae and eggs remain intact. After the incubation period, a new generation of worms may emerge from them, the destruction of which will require a second course.

For the treatment of helminths, you should take the medication prescribed by your doctor.

Use of folk remedies

Treatment with folk remedies requires more time than drug therapy. But this relative disadvantage is offset by the gentleness of the herbal medicine and the lack of side effects.

There are many herbs that have an anthelmintic effect - nettle, tansy, celandine, wormwood, horsetail and many more. Antiparasitic plants contain ingredients that are toxic to cestodes, nematodes and trematodes and usually have a bitter taste.

Many anthelmintic drugs are also equipped with antiseptic and antibacterial action. Their effectiveness depends on the preparation and correct administration of dosage forms. Here are some of the most popular herbal medicines and products. But you have to understand that this is only a small part of what actually exists.

The anthelmintic doctor should prescribe based on the diagnosis

Pumpkin seeds

It would not be an exaggeration to say that pumpkin seeds are the most well-known anti-helminthic medicine. They contain kukurbitin, which is very effective against nematodes and cestodes. Pumpkin seeds can be used not only for treatment but also for prevention.

Above all the kukurbitina is contained in the film, which is located between the nucleus and the shell.Therefore, the seeds are best consumed unpeeled. For treatment, you need to eat 300 g of seeds at a time. For prevention 100 g is enough for adults and 70 g for children. From pumpkin seeds you can prepare solutions for enemas, which are effective against worms that are localized in the colon.


Garlic is a universal remedy that is not inferior in effectiveness to pumpkin seeds. It contains phytoncides and essential oils, which have a depressing effect on parasitic creatures of all kinds. Garlic is very active against nematodes, in particular, ascaris.


Parasitic worms do not tolerate alkaline conditions well, so baking soda is an effective remedy against them. It can be taken orally, but the greatest effect of sodium bicarbonate is achieved by preparing an enema solution from it. It should be used when localizing nematodes or cestodes in the colon.


Honey does not need to be advertised as a medicinal product, but not everyone knows that it is effective as an anthelmintic. To take it for this purpose you need half a teaspoon 9 times a day. During treatment throughout the day you should refuse food.

Only fresh vegetables are allowed the next day. Since honey has no contraindications and side effects, it can be used to treat young children. It is recommended to give a glass of sweetened water with a teaspoon of honey.

Honey is a popular anti-helminthic medicine that removes parasites in adults and children.

carrot juice

Even official medicine, which is sometimes very strict about folk remedies, acknowledges that carrot juice has an anti-helminthic effect. The amount of fluid taken at a time is not limited by any requirement, everything must be within reason.

Castor oil

Many types of nematodes and cestodes are localized in the intestine. Some laxatives work well against them, in particular, the well-known castor oil. For adults, this recipe is suitable. 80 ml of cognac is mixed with castor oil and drunk with a sip before going to bed.

The procedure is performed for 3 days. Children at 1-2 o'clock in the morning are given a sweet drink (compost, juice, tea) and after half an hour - 15-30 g of castor oil.


If parasitic worms do not appear clearly (for example, in the form of whole individuals or fragments of them in the feces), it is almost impossible to determine the presence of the invasion itself. Therefore, at the first appearance of symptoms that may indicate infection, you should not hesitate to contact an infectious disease specialist.

In his arsenal there are tools that allow you to create an invasion with a one hundred percent probability. Delay in contacting a clinic or self-diagnosis based on self-diagnosis can unfortunately end, even with death.